Ambient Pressure Photoelectron Spectroscopy (AP-XPS)


Quantification of the elemental composition and determination of the element oxidation states within the sample surface.

Specific information on the method:

  • Maximum information depth: 5nm
  • limit of detection down to 1at%
  • elements: Li upwards

Specific information on the equipment/instrumentation:

Measurement in UHV as well as near ambient conditions (up to 50mbar), sample heating up to 1200°C, in-situ cleaving and Ar+ etching, possible gases: H2, O2, H2O, CO2, CO, SO2, Ar, N2


Suitable for solids or powders, conductive samples as well as insulators,
Limitation: samples stable under UHV conditions

Examples of typical analytical questions:

  • Studying high-T Corrosion on Fe-Cr alloys with near ambient pressure XPS
  • Determination of oxidation states of Pt, Ir and Pd for catalysis with XPS
  • Investigation of interfacial layer compounds of high-k gate dielectrics with XPS

Fields of research:

Materials for fuel cells, batteries, catalysis and electronic devices (e.g. transistors), high-T alloys